If you are new to investing, you may find yourself hesitating to even get involved in it. That’s a natural response anytime we are confused about anything. But almost ironically, one of the biggest obstacles to investing is simply getting started. You don’t have to be a master investor at the start, but the only way that you will ever learn to be one is to start doing it.
You may take some bumps and bruises along the way, but eventually, you’ll get the hang of it. The big rewards will come over time.
How to Start Investing: The Basics
Investing is mostly about increasing the value of your money over time. Where the basic goal of traditional savings is capital preservation when it comes to investing you’re looking to grow your money so that it will have a bigger positive impact in the future.
There are two basic ways to benefit from investing, and each serves a different function:
- Creating passive income streams – With this strategy, you’re focusing on buying investments that will provide a revenue stream. This can be in the form of interest and dividends. Most typically, you will be looking for securities that will pay above-average rates of return. Learn more about passive income >
- Growing your money – This is about investing your money in growth type assets, primarily equities (stocks) and often real estate. The basic idea is that you buy an investment today for $10, and 10 years from now it’s worth $100.
In an optimal investment strategy, you will be accomplishing both objectives to some degree. Though the conventional wisdom is that you should pursue growth when you’re in your twenties and thirties, then gradually shift to income as you move into your forties and fifties and are preparing for retirement.
Why You Should Invest
Investing is all about putting your money to work for you. Early in life, you need to work to earn money – which is to say that you will work for everything you get. But as you accumulate investment wealth, the income and growth from your portfolio should begin to gradually replace your income.
By the time you reach retirement, your investment income should completely replace your earned income, enabling you to enjoy a comfortable retirement. But there are other reasons for investing beyond retirement.
- Inflation is one of the biggest reasons. Particularly for people in the middle class, wages typically do not keep pace with the rising cost of living. Investing money is one of the best ways to offset that imbalance. As your wealth grows, and you begin to rely increasingly on the income that it generates, the extra income enables you to better cope with rising prices.
- Preparing for contingencies is another important reason. A large investment portfolio is one of the best protection you can have in case of a job loss, a business failure, or even a medical catastrophe.
How to Invest
Though investing can seem somewhat exotic if you’ve never done it before, the process is very basic. For the most part, you are saving money, but you are doing so primarily for the purpose of growing it for future needs.
The best way to invest is through automatic payroll deductions. This removes the need to budget investments into your overall spending plan. The money simply goes into an investment account without any effort on your part and builds over time.
You can simply have an equal amount deducted from your paycheck each pay period and sent into a savings account, a mutual fund, or a brokerage account. What you are doing is automating the investment process in such a way that it will require no time or effort on your part.
Where to Invest
You should start by opening an investment brokerage account. There are plenty of them available, including and especially online. They charge minimal fees for trading and offer a wide assortment of tools and training that will help you with the whole process.
Your company’s 401(k) plan
Using payroll deductions for a retirement plan, such as a 401(k) plan, is very common. But not as many people are aware that you can use payroll deductions to fund just about any kind of investment plan, including those that are not earmarked for retirement.
Brokerage account for Individual Retirement Accounts
A brokerage account can be set up for retirement contributions, such as an individual retirement account (IRA). You also set up a taxable account. In either case, you can hold a variety of assets in each account, including stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and exchange-traded funds (ETFs).
A brokerage account for an IRA will obviously be targeted for your retirement. But a taxable brokerage account will help you in dealing with inflation and in preparing for contingencies, such as an income disruption or loss. Under ideal circumstances, you should have both types of accounts, since you’ll be dealing with a variety of challenges at one time or another in your life.
Online brokerage accounts for stocks and mutual funds
You can also hold certain investment securities directly, such as stocks or mutual funds. But the disadvantage of doing so is the difficulty in selling the securities and moving the money into a different investment.
This is why an investment brokerage account is so important if you want to be a serious investor.
Certificate of deposits with your financial institution
On the more conservative side, you can also invest money in certificates of deposit at your local bank. These securities pay very low-interest rates in the current interest rate environment, but they are more for capital preservation than anything else.
What You Need to Know About the Mechanics of Investing
Thus far we’ve talked primarily about the theory of investing, so now let’s get into the basic nuts and bolts of investing:
Start with an emergency fund
Before you put money into an investment of any sort, you should first start by accumulating an adequate emergency fund. Generally speaking, the fund should include a sufficient amount of money to cover 5-6 months of living expenses. This will provide you with the cash to cover unemployment or underemployment. Invest your money in an interest-bearing savings account or a bank money market account so the funds are easily accessible.
There’s no such thing as an all-weather investment so you will need to diversify–have a mix of stocks, fixed income investments, cash type assets, and even certain tangibles, such as real estate and precious metals.
Stocks essentially represent your core growth investments, while fixed-income investments represent your income investments. Cash is the extra capital that you have available to take advantage of investments as they present themselves. And tangibles have a way of performing well when other asset types don’t.
Stay away from exotic investments
If you are a beginner investor, stick with the basics as listed above. Stay away from any temptation there may be to engage in options, day trading, or any other investment strategies that represent a significantly higher risk.
Go with funds whenever possible
Rather than getting into individual stocks, hold mutual funds and ETFs instead. The fund managers do the stock picking for you, and you pay a lot less in transaction fees than if you try to assemble a large portfolio of stocks yourself.
Add to your portfolio on a continuous basis
Investing isn’t about reaching a certain portfolio size. It is a process of continuous growth. That growth should come from two directions: from investment earnings, and from additional contributions. Continue to fund your portfolio on a regular basis.
Adopt the long-term view
No matter what, you have to adopt a long-term view when it comes to investing. There will be times when your investment portfolio is down, and you will need to look past the moment and continue to focus on long-term growth. Virtually every bear market in history has eventually turned into a bull market. That’s exactly what you should be waiting for any time the market is down. The biggest benefits always come from those who invest for decades, and not years or months.
Investing Involves Risk
We’ve talked some about how investments, particularly stocks, can go through down cycles. This is part of the risk that is inherent in investing. Unless you are investing your money in fixed income assets, there are no guarantees that any single investment will be profitable.
Coming to grips with this risk is an integral part of the investing process. You can’t panic anytime an investment is down, or even when your entire portfolio is down. Recognize that declines are completely normal with investing.
In fact, some of the very best investment opportunities will come on the heels of major stock market declines. At that point, you’ll be buying up stocks at depressed prices because everyone else has sold out. Once the market begins turning up again, you can be on a virtual elevator ride to the top.
But the risk is also the primary reason we need to diversify.
It would be great to have 100% of your money invested in stocks during a bull market. But when the market turns negative, you will be completely exposed to the risk of declines. For this reason, at least some of your money has to be invested outside of stocks.
Understand the risks of investing, but also the necessities that we discussed earlier.
- Start small, and continue building your nest egg.
- Diversify into multiple investments
- Be prepared to ride out the rough spots.
- Always continue adding to your portfolio.
- Look for new investment opportunities.
Investing is nothing more complicated than that.
If you can get a handle on that process, you’ll be well on your way to become a successful investor.
How to Guides
There are many ways to invest as mentioned above. You can consider using these services to dip your toes. You can start investing using:
- an online brokerage account with Ally Invest
- mobile app such as Robinhood
- with as little as $5 with Stash Invest
- your change with Acorns
Additional Investing Resources
Investing is the act of committing money to an endeavor with the expectation of earning additional income or profit. There are a number of ways you can invest such as with stocks, bonds, mutual funds, real estate or your own business. There are many pros and cons to investing but depending on your risk tolerance one may be a better fit for you.
The stock market is the term used to talk about a place where stocks and bonds are bought and sold. When most people think of investing the first thing that often comes to mind is the stock market. In a stock market shares of public companies are issued and traded either through exchanges or over-the-counter markets.
Stocks are a type of security that gives stockholders a share of ownership in a company. Stocks also are called “equities.” When a company needs to raise money for business operations or growth they have two choices: 1) borrow money or 2) raise it from investors by selling them a piece of the company by issuing shares of stock. When you own a share of stock you are a part owner in the company.
A mutual fund is a company that pools money from many investors and invests the money in securities such as stocks, bonds, and short-term debt. The combined holdings of the mutual fund are known as its portfolio. Investors buy shares in mutual funds. Each share represents an investor’s part ownership in the fund and the income it generates.
A bond is a debt security, similar to an IOU. Borrowers issue bonds to raise money from investors willing to lend them money for a certain amount of time. When you buy a bond, you are lending to the issuer, which may be a government, municipality, or corporation.
Mistakes to avoid when investing
Investing money has its risk and there are no guarantees of a return on your investment. In reality, you could lose everything you’ve invested. It’s important to be as knowledgeable as you can about investing principles and terminology, market conditions, investment options, and information on what you’re investing in.
Don’t assume market performance. Many investors make the mistake in believing they can predict how the market will perform. They become too confident and believe that past performance is indicative of future return.
Don’t take on more risk than you can handle. If you don’t know what your risk tolerance is than stay clear of blind investing.
Consult with a financial expert. Some investors make the mistake of not consulting with an expert and getting advise. On the other hand, it’s important to know and trust the advisor that is giving you advice. Some financial advisors earn commissions selling certain financial products and may recommend them over alternatives that may be better suited for you.
Don’t make the mistake of not asking enough questions. If you don’t understand it, keep asking until it makes sense. There’s a lot of pieces to investing and it can seem overwhelming so take your time to learn and understand.
Know the fees and commission structures. Don’t just look at the potential returns but understand the fees you’ll be paying the advisor and the cost of managing your portfolio.