Banking Basics and Saving Money

All About Banking and Saving Money | Financial Education

Start your understanding of financial principals by learning more about banking products and services. Then, learn about saving money, calculating interest and Rule of 72.


Introduction to Banking Basics and Saving Money

The plan is to introduce banking concepts and terminology.  The goal is to understand basic banking products and services and importance of saving money.  The takeaway is to know various banking products and services and create a savings strategy.


Financial Institutions

A number of financial institutions exist such as:

– Commercial Banks
– Investment Banks
– Insurance Companies
– Brokerages
– Investment Companies
– Savings and Loans
– Credit Unions


Credit Unions and Banks 

Credit Unions versus Banks


Deposit Insurance

Banks and the FDIC

– The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is an independent agency of the United States government that protects the funds depositors place in banks and savings associations. FDIC insurance is backed by the full faith and credit of the United States government. The standard insurance amount is $250,000 per depositor, per insured bank, for each account ownership category.

Credit Unions and the NCUA

– The National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) is the independent federal agency that regulates, charters and supervises federal credit unions. With the backing of the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, NCUA operates and manages the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund (NCUSIF), insuring deposits up to $250,000 per depositor, per insured credit union for each category of ownership.


Banking Products – Deposits

Checking Accounts

A checking account offers access to your money for daily transactional needs. A debit card or checks can be used to withdraw money, make purchases or pay bills.

Money Market Accounts

A money market account is a type of savings account offered by some banks and credit. They are similar to savings account but usually pay higher interest, have higher minimum balance requirements and only allow three to six withdrawals per month.

Savings Accounts

An account in a bank or credit union that earns interest.

Certificates of Deposit (CDs)

CDs are savings products. The key difference between a regular savings account and a CD is that early withdrawal from a CD in advance of pre-specified term leads to penalty fees. Interest earned in CDs typically are higher than regular savings accounts.

Individual Retirement Accounts (IRA)

An IRA is an account that allows an individual to save for retirement with tax-free growth or on a tax-deferred basis. There are three main types of IRAs—Traditional, Roth, and Rollover—each with different advantages.


Banking Access

ATM

An electronic banking outlet which allows customers to access their cash and complete basic transactions without the aid of a branch representative or teller.

ATM Card

An ATM card is a PIN-based card. That means that in addition to using to withdraw money at ATMs, you may also be able to use it to make purchases (by entering your Personal Identification Number)

Debit or Check Card

A card that resembles a credit card but debits a checking account for purchases. Can also be used to withdraw money from an ATM.

Branch Banking

A bank or credit union branch or financial center is a retail location that offers a wide array of face-to-face and automated banking services to its customers. •

Online Banking

Also known as internet banking which enables customers to access bank accounts and information about transactions through the financial institution’s web site.

Mobile Banking

Mobile banking refers to the use of a smartphone or tablet to perform online banking tasks such as monitoring account balances, transferring funds between accounts, bill payment and locating an ATM.


Open a Saving or Checking Account

Deposit Requirement

A minimum deposit might be required to open a savings or checking account.

Identification

A government issued ID along with social security card may be required.

Contact Information

Address and telephone which may require proof of residence through a billing statement.

Chexsystems

A consumer credit reporting agency. It’s very similar to credit reporting bureaus but information is strictly about your banking history. Many financial institutions use Chexsystems to determine whether or not to open a checking account. Check your Chexsystems report on ConsumerDebit.com.


How to Read a Check

Phroogal Checking Account

A Routing Number (also known as the ABA number) is the number used to identify the financial institution in a transaction.


Banking Terms

Direct Deposit

– Direct deposit (also known as payroll direct deposit) electronically deposits your paycheck, pension, Social Security, or other regular monthly income into a checking, savings account, or Money Market account. There is typically no charge for direct deposit, funds are available on payday (some financial institutions make them available the night before) and many financial institutions require a direct deposit to avoid account maintenance fees.

Withdrawals

– Removing funds from your deposit accounts.

Deposits

– Any money in a savings or a checking account or in a certificate of deposit (CD).

Principal

– The total sum of money borrowed plus any interest that has been capitalized.

Banking Fees

– Banks and credit unions charge fees for various services on a transactional, monthly or annual basis. These fees typically contribute a major portion of a financial institutions revenues

Interest Rate

– The percentage rate of interest charged to the borrower or paid to a lender, saver, or investor.

Annual Percentage Rate

– A measure of the cost of credit, expressed as a yearly rate. It includes interest as well as other charges. Because all lenders, by federal law, follow the same rules to ensure the accuracy of the annual percentage rate, it provides consumers with a good basis for comparing the cost of loans.

Rate of Return

– How fast money in savings account or investment grows. Annual earnings on an investment expressed as a percentage of the amount invested; also known as yield. Example: A $3 annual dividend divided by $34 share cost = 0.088, an 8.8% rate of return.

Simple Interest

– Interest calculated periodically on loan principal or investment principal only, not on previously earned interest.

Compound Interest

– Interest upon interest, where accrued interest is added to the principal sum, and the whole treated as new principal, for the calculation of the interest for the next period.


Banking Products – Loans

Loan – a sum of money that is borrowed and is expected to be paid back with interest.

Credit – the ability of a customer to obtain goods or services before payment, based on the trust that payment will be made in the future.

Types of Loans and Credit

– Credit Cards
– Personal Loans / Lines of Credit
– Debt Consolidation Loans
– Auto Loans
– Boat/Recreational Vehicle Loans
– Home Equity Loan / Lines of Credit
– Mortgages
– Student Loans / Lines of Credit


Plastic Cards

Credit Card – A plastic card that authorizes the delivery of goods and services in exchange for future payment with interest, according to a specific schedule. • Secured Credit Card – A secured credit card is a credit line that is not tied to collateral such as a cash deposit, auto or home. They are typically given to consumers based on credit history and the ability to repay the debt.

Debit or Check Card – A card that resembles a credit card but debits a checking account for purchases. Can also be used to withdraw money from an ATM.

ATM Card – An ATM card is a PIN-based card. That means that in addition to using to withdraw money at ATMs, you may also be able to use it to make purchases (by entering your Personal Identification Number)

Advantages of using debit cards?  Using your own money.  When using a debit card as a “credit” or “pin-based” transaction, money is still debited from checking account.

Advantages of using credit cards?  Earn rewards and purchases may benefit from extended warranties or price guarantees.

ATM Fees and Surcharges – Access ATMs using the financial institutions ATM network to avoid paying fees.  Use cash back at registers when prompted.


 “A penny saved is a penny earned.”

– Benjamin Franklin

Why Should You Save?

1. Build a safety net to weather unforeseen circumstances.

2. Reach financial independence where income is derived from interest and returns.

3. Stop reliance on credit and accumulation of the debt “ball and chains.”

4. Having money when you need it or want to use it.


Savings Options and Choices

There are many options to save your money so which option is right for you?

1. Determine what you’re saving for.

2. Decide on how much access to the savings which is called Liquidity.

3. Determine how much money you need to deposit.

4. Choose an account with the best interest rates, lowest fees and best liquidity.


How Much to Save?

What’s the magic number? Is 3%, 5%, 10% or more?

– Depends on your lifestyle choices and spending habits.

– The more you save today the more you’ll be secure when you’re unable to work.

Income comes and goes but lifestyle is sticky.

– Assess spending habits to find money to save.


What to Save?

Emergency fund – Calculate monthly living expenses and save 6 months in a liquid savings account.

Short-term goals – Holiday spending, vacations and big ticket items.

Mid-term goals – Mortgage down payment, car purchases, etc.

Long-term goals – 401(k), IRA contributions, investments.


 

Where to Save?

Phroogal Savings Liquidity

Whatever savings or investment strategy, starting earlier can help you maximize long-term savings and increase wealth.


Simple Interest

Calculating simple interest: principal x interest rate x time = interest earned

Example: You open a savings account with $1,000 at a 5% simple APR, how much will you earn the first year?

$1,000 x .05 x 1 = $50 interest earned the first year.


Compound Interest

Compound interest is what makes savings really grow. When your interest compounds, it gets added back to your account and becomes part of your principal. With more principal, the account earns even more interest, which continually compounds into new principal. It’s a powerful cycle that really adds up.

Example: If you’re $1,000 at 5% simple (Annual Percentage Rate) APR, earns $50 each year but if that interest compounds then the interest becomes part of the principal. When this happen you’re beginning to earn interest on interest.

$1,000 x .05 x 1 = $50 interest earned in year one

$1,050 x .05 x 1 = $52.50 interest earned in year two


The Rule of 72

How long will it take for your money to double?

The Rule of 72 is a simple way to figure out how long it will take for your money to double with compound interest.

72 divided by the interest rate = the number of years needed to double your money

Example: 10% interest rate and want to know how long it will take to double your money would be:

72 divided by 10 = 7.2 years


Resources

FDIC – The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is an independent agency of the United States government that protects the funds depositors place in banks and savings associations.

NCUA – The National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) is the independent federal agency that regulates, charters and supervises federal credit unions. With the backing of the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, NCUA operates and manages the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund (NCUSIF).

ChexSystems – The network is comprised of member financial institutions that regularly contribute information on closed checking and savings accounts.

AmericaSaves – America Saves, a campaign managed by the nonprofit Consumer Federation of America, seeks to motivate, encourage, and support low- to moderate-income households to save money, reduce debt, and build wealth.

Emergency Savings Calculator – Having adequate emergency savings can make unforeseen unemployment, auto repairs, medical emergencies, property damage and even legal issues more manageable.